The below question is answered by (opens in a new tab), Dr. Richard M. Kline, Jr. of The Center for Natural Breast Reconstruction:In July 2010 I had I-GAP reconstruction. The results are awful. Do you have techniques that can work with a flap and add volume, shape, and projection to a partially recreated breast without the use of implants? Sorry to hear about your problem, but it’s not terribly unusual to not have quite enough tissue after (opens in a new tab). That’s actually good for you, because it means we have some experience dealing with this. The most desirable techniques to try, and in what order, depend on your body type and preferences, but here are some options: 1) Fat grafts: Your fat from anywhere you don’t want it can be harvested with liposuction and injected into the breast mounds in the desired areas. Survival of the fat is not strictly predictable, but often a significant amount remains permanently. Several sessions may be required, however. 2) Vth intercostal artery perforator flap: This is a fancy name we give when we utilize the extra roll of skin and fat that a lot of patients have (& hate) on the side of their chest behind the breast, under the armpit. It is left attached at the front, the skin is removed, and the flap is tunneled under the skin at the side of the breast, then across the top of the breast as far as it will reach. Besides making the breast bigger, this technique has the particular advantages of covering the upper border of the pectoralis muscle (often visible just under the skin after reconstruction), and lifting the breast in what is often a very aesthetically pleasing way. The disadvantage is that it adds a scar under the arm from where the flap was taken. 3) Additional perforator flaps: No one likes to hear this, but sometimes it is the best answer. We have always been able to find suitable blood vessels and add flaps successfully whenever we have had to try this, and the results have been favorable. Definitely not the first choice for most people, but good to know it’s a tried-and-true technique if you absolutely need it. 4) Finally, a small implant under a too small but otherwise (opens in a new tab) is often surprisingly well-tolerated, even in radiated patients. Not for everyone, but an option that has been used quite successfully in some instances, nonetheless. We went through our “iGAP phase” some years ago, and abandoned it not because of the reconstructive results, but because we decided the (opens in a new tab)resulted in far more favorable buttock aesthetics. --Dr. Richard M. Kline, Jr.